higher rents. Landlords, and Wilmot was an important one, put what money they had into land in order to maintain a steady rent- roll.'39 Rents were rising and the first experiments in developing lead on the estate had resulted in new sources of income from mining royalties. But although Wilmot possessed an income which, by any standards, was substantial he still found it necessary to borrow money. This was partly due to the increase in entail and, therefore, the need to provide for his own children, those of previous marriages, and long- living dowagers. But underlying it all one must remember, too, that any rise in income was always offset by an increase in the expenditure which maintained the style of life appropriate to one's social status. Loans were raised from various sources, and always with accompanying high interest charges. To aggravate Wilmot's position still further these commitments coincided with the inopportune calling-in of loans made earlier to his father and uncle, and all these drains on family resources occurred when his own son was developing reckless spending habits and entertaining on lavish scales. All this helped to make the last ten years of the century a rather anxious decade in the history of the family-a period of perpetual loans and unavoidable outgoings when the cost of living had risen and was still rising. The new Earl of Lisburne40 had adopted a careful policy, but external factors beyond his control had again resulted in an accumulation of debts. In thirty-four years the wheel had tuined full circle and the prospects for the new century were not good. The position was further complicated when the first Earl of Lisburne died in 1800. He was succeeded not by his son, Wilmot, but by a half- brother, John Vaughan. Wilmot, the second Earl, whose sanity had been suspect as far back as November 13, 1778, was declared insane on August 24, 1779. An examination held at New Inn, Middlesex, proved that he was a lunatic enjoying lucid intervals, but so that he is not sufficient for the government of himself and his estate.'41 Here, then, was the unusual position of a person in control of the estate being immune from the fuller responsibilities of an Earl of Lisburne. Yet his was no easy inheritance. Due to reasons already mentioned the full amount of debt handed down to him by the first Earl came to the exceedingly high total of £ 29,070 10s. iod. and this at an interest rate of 5 per cent and over. In view of this unfortunate financial situation John Vaughan, in the twenty years of this inter-regnum,' was concerned mainly with various attempts to clear this fiscal burden.42 The first measure adopted by him was the assignment, on June 8, 1801, of all the lands that were to pass to him to two trustees, Sir Lawrence Palk, his brother-in-law, and Edward Wilson of London. The reason for this trust was stated to be to clear all debts out of the profits of the