WELSH CATHOLICS ON THE CONTINENT.1 By W. LLEWELYN WILLIAMS, B.C.L. OXON. "THE Jesuits as a body stood for the Catholic Reaction from first to last, a political expedient. The Clergy, on the other hand, contented themselves with the cause of religion." Taunton's English Jesuits, Preface. "The principle of Authority was emphasised, as long as that Authority was Jesuit, or 'at least under their direction but this was done at the cost of personality, episcopacy, and nationality." Ibid., p. 171. "The Jesuits saw plainly, after the fate of the Duke of Norfolk, and the collapse of the Northern Earls, that Elizabeth would never be overturned except by the aid of a foreign force." Hume's Treason and Plot, p. 12. "Long before the Armada sailed, the Scottish Catholics at the Vatican, jealous of their king's right to the English succession, the French cardinals, apprehensive of a Spanish dominion over England, the Welsh priests, led by Owen Lewis, Bishop of Cassano, and most of the English Seculars, Carthusians, and Benedictines, none of whom had any love for the pushing Jesuits, were busy with plans that should make England a Catholic country without submitting her to a foreign yoke." Ibid., p. 13. "The faction led by the Jesuits contended for the Spanish succession and the subjection of England to the Pope by force of arms. Their opponents were for the King of Scots, whether Catholic or Protestant. The one party upheld the papal claim to depose princes, whilst the members of the other party came to protest that in case of any attempt to enforce such a claim they should in conscience be bound to defend their sovereign in defiance of all ecclesiastical censures. These same men aimed at securing some measure of toleration for their religion, and at establishing a modus vivendi with 1 Read before the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion at 20, Hanover Square, on Wednesday, 28th of May 1902. Chairman, Sir John Williams, Bart.